Development of Luminescent Biosensors for Calprotectin

Tong Lan, Tomasz Slezak, Jinyue Pu, Julia Zinkus-Boltz, Sarbani Adhikari, Joel R. Pekow, Vibha Taneja, Joaquin Zuniga, Itzel A. Gómez-García, Nora Regino-Zamarripa, Mushtaq Ahmed, Shabaana A. Khader, David T. Rubin, Anthony A. Kossiakoff, and Bryan C. Dickinson

ACS Chem. Biol. June 6, 2024 © 2024 American Chemical Society

PMID: 38843544 DOI: 10.1021/acschembio.4c00265

Calprotectin, a metal ion-binding protein complex, plays a crucial role in the innate immune system and has gained prominence as a biomarker for various intestinal and systemic inflammatory and infectious diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and tuberculosis (TB). Current clinical testing methods rely on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), limiting accessibility and convenience. In this study, we introduce the Fab-Enabled Split-luciferase Calprotectin Assay (FESCA), a novel quantitative method for calprotectin measurement. FESCA utilizes two new fragment antigen binding proteins (Fabs), CP16 and CP17, that bind to different epitopes of the calprotectin complex. These Fabs are fused with split NanoLuc luciferase fragments, enabling the reconstitution of active luciferase upon binding to calprotectin either in solution or in varied immobilized assay formats. FESCA’s output luminescence can be measured with standard laboratory equipment as well as consumer-grade cell phone cameras. FESCA can detect physiologically relevant calprotectin levels across various sample types, including serum, plasma, and whole blood. Notably, FESCA can detect abnormally elevated native calprotectin from TB patients. In summary, FESCA presents a convenient, low-cost, and quantitative method for assessing calprotectin levels in various biological samples, with the potential to improve the diagnosis and monitoring of inflammatory diseases, especially in at-home or point-of-care settings.